‘’Agglutination is the process that occur if an antigen is mixed with its corresponding antibody called ‘Isoagglutinin/Agglutinins’.
ABO blood grouping : Karl Landsteiner discovered human blood groups.
AB blood group was found by Decastrello and Sturli in 1902.
Antiserum A + Blood sample = Agglutination = Blood group A
Antiserum B + blood sample = Agglutination = Blood group B
Antiserum A+B + Blood sample = Agglutination = Blood group AB
Antiserum A+B + Blood sample = NO Agglutination = Blood group O
The ABO blood group antigens remain of prime importance in transfusion medicine—they are the most immunogenic of all the blood group antigens. The most common cause of death from a blood transfusion is a clerical error in which an incompatible type of ABO blood is transfused. The ABO blood group antigens also appear to have been important throughout our evolution because the frequencies of different ABO blood types vary among different populations, suggesting that a particular blood type conferred a selection advantage (e.g., resistance against an infectious disease.)
However, despite their obvious clinical importance, the physiological functions of ABO blood group antigens remain a mystery. People with the common blood type O express neither the A nor B antigen, and they are perfectly healthy. Numerous associations have been made between particular ABO phenotypes and an increased susceptibility to disease. For example, the ABO phenotype has been linked with stomach ulcers (more common in group O individuals) and gastric cancer (more common in group A individuals). Another observation is that individuals with blood type O tend to have lower levels of the von Willebrand Factor (vWF), which is a protein involved in blood clotting.
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